Salat

From WikiAhmadiyya, the free encyclopedia on Islam and Ahmadiyyat

Practices     

"Allah" in Arabic calligraphy
Kalima Shahadah: Declaration of Faith
Salat: Prayer
    Zakat: Tax for good Quranic causes
Sawm: Fasting
    Hajj: Pilgrimage

Salat is to perform the Islamic prayer in a prescribed form. Its importance for Muslims is indicated by its status as one of the Five Pillars of IslamIt is enjoined upon every adult Muslim of sound mind to pray five times a day. The exhortation to offer prayer is found on numerous occasions in the Quran and described in the ahadith.






























Conditions

  • Determination of Intention: The intention to perform a Prayer must be made prior to 
    Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Caliph of Ahmadiyya, offering Salat
    the beginning of the Prayer.
  • The place and mat of Prayer should be neat and clean
  • The body must be properly covered during the Prayer
  • Qibla direction: All Muslims must face towards the Kaba in Mecca

Ritual Ablution

Wudu, meaning ablution, is obligatory prior to a prayer. Hands should be washed three times with water and the mouth rinsed with water three times. Then, the nose internally cleaned by pushing water into the nostrils three times. The entire face should be washed three times. After this, the whole of the forearm up to and including the elbow should be washed three times each, starting with the right. Then, having wetted the hands with some water again, a pass should be made over the head with both hands, palms downwards with thumbs outstretched so that almost the whole head is covered by this in a passing motion. At the end of this motion, the ears should be cleaned with the tips of the forefingers. All fingers are then joined together and the hands are inverted so that the palms now are facing outwards. With the back of the hands, a pass is made from the nape of the neck to the front of the neck. Lastly the feet should be washed up to the ankles inclusive, three times each, again beginning with the right. 


How to conduct Salat 


Standing

Important positions during salat.
Jumah Salat
Ahmadiyya Caliph leads congregation of 10,000 at the Baitul Futuh Mosque in London
The Second Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community leading prayers
Salat in Aqsa Mosque
Ahmadi Muslims offering prayers at Aqsa Mosque, Qadian, India

Normally, Salat should be offered in congregation in a mosque. The worshipers stand in a row behind the Imam, the person who leads the prayer, all facing towards the Kaba. Where congregations are of mixed gender, the Imam chosen will always be a man as this was the practice at the time of the Prophet of Islam, Muhammadsa. One reason for this is that the Imam must prostrate with the congregation at his back and such positions may be considered undignified for a woman to take with men standing behind her.

The rows must be perfectly straight and the worshipers should stand shoulder to shoulder but in no way in a position to interfere with each other's prayer. The Prayer starts with Takbir-i-Tahreema, i.e; the Imam raises both hands to the level of his earlobes and says اَللهُ أَكْبَرْ (Allahu Akbar, God is the Greatest). All worshipers follow.

The Imam then lowers his hands and folds his chest so that the right arm is over his left arm. The following glorification is recited individually in silence (but only in the first rakat of each prayer):

 سُبْحَاْنَكَ اَلْلّٰھُمَّ وَ بِحَمدِکَ وَ تَبَارَکَ اسْمُکَ وَ تَعَاْلٰی جَدُّکَ وَ لَا اِلٰہَ غَیْرُكَ 

Subhanakallah-humma wa bihamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wala ilaha ghairuka

(Holy art Thou, O Allah, and all praise is Thine; blessed is Thy name, and exalted is Thy state. There is none worthy of worship except Thee alone.)

This is followed by the imam reciting the first chapter of the holy Quran, Surah Al Fatiha. During Fajr, Maghrib and Isha prayers, he recites it loudly, while in Zuhr and Asr he recites it silently:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿﴾ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ ﴿﴾ مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ ﴿﴾ إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ ﴿﴾ اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ ﴿﴾ صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

Al hamdu lillahi Rabbil alamin. Ar-rahmanir-Ra him. Maliki yaumiddin. Iyyaka nabudu wa iyyaka nastain. Ihdinas-sirat al-mustaqim. Siratallathina anamta alaihim, ghairil maghdubi alaihim wa ladhdhalleen.

(All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the worlds, Most Gracious, Ever Merciful; Master of the Day of Judgement. Thee alone do we worship and Thee alone do we implore for help. Guide us along the right path, the path of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy blessings, those who have not incurred Thy displeasure, and those who have not gone astray.)

At the end of Sura Fatiha, the worshippers say 'ameen' which means 'O. Allah! Accept our supplications.'

Thereafter, the Imam recites a portion of the holy Quran. At the end of the recitation, the Imam goes from the standing position to the bowing position, called Ruku, by calling out 'Allahu Akbar'.

Bowing

In the bowing posture the following Tasbih is recited silently three times: سبحان ربى العظيم (Subhana Rabbiyal Azhim, Holy is my Lord the Most Great). The Imam then straightens up and stands with his arms by his sides. When he initiates this movement, he recites Tasmee loudly which is an indication for the congregation that to change the posture from bowing to standing: سمع الله لمن حمده (Sami allahu liman hamidah, Allah listens to him who praises Him).

Prostration

Then the Imam says Allahu Akbar loudly again and leads the congregation into the prostration called Sajdah. In this posture, the knees, hands, nose and the forehead of the worshiper should be touching the ground. The head should be placed on the ground between the two hands. The arms should be away from the ground and away from the worshiper's sides. The abdomen is kept away from the thighs. The fingers are held together pointing towards the Kaba. The feet should be planted on the ground so that the toes are bent in the direction of the Kaba.The worshipers silently recite سبحان ربى الأعلى (Subhana Rabbiyal ala Glory to my Lord, the Most High) three times or more. The imam then says Allahu Akbar again, at which he and the congregation raise their heads and then hands from the ground and go into the sitting position called Jilsa.

Sitting

In every rakat (cyle within each prayer) there are two prostrations. Between these prostrations the worshipers sit. At the end of the second prostration, one rakat is completed. After saying Allahu Akbar once again, the imam leads the congregation into the standing posture to commence the second rakat. At the end of the second prostration of the second rakat (and for those prayers that are longer than two rakats, again at the end of the final rakat), rather than standing up the imam sits once more. This sitting position at the end of the second rakat is called qadah. The worshipers silently recite:

التَّحِيَّاتُ لله وَ الصَّلَوَاتُ وَ الطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبيُّ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَ عَلَى عِبَادِ اللهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إلهَ إلا اللهُ وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ ورَسُولُهُ

Attahiyyatu lillahi wassalawatu wattayibat. Assalamu alaika ayyuhan nabbiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. Assalamu alaina wa ala ibadillahissalihin. Ash hadu alla ilaha illallahu wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluh.

(All Salutation is due to Allah and all Prayer and everything pure. Peace be upon thee, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings; and peace be on us and on all righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.)

When the worshipper reaches the phrase 'Ashhadu alla ilaaha ilalaho', he should raise the forefinger of his right hand and should drop it back as soon as he has recited it. During the final rakat, the worshiper additionally offers durood, an invocation of blessings upon the prophet of Islam, Muhammadsa:

اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ، وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ

Allahumma salli ala Muhammadin wa ala ali Muhammadin, kama sallaita ala Ibrahima wa ala ali Ibrahima innaka Hamidum-Majid. Allahuma barik ala Muhammadin wa ala ali Muhammadin kama barakta ala Ibrahima wa ala ali lbrahima innaka Hamidum-Majid., 

(Bless, O Allah, Muhammad and the people of Muhammad, as Thou didst bless Abraham and the people of Abraham. Thou art indeed the Praiseworthy, the Glorious. Prosper, O Allah, Muhammad and the people of Muhammad, as Thou didst prosper Abraham and the people of Abraham. Thou are the Praiseworthy, the Glorious.)

Following durood, worshipers may silently recite prayers of their own choice. They then end salat by saying السلام عليكم و رحمة الله (Assalamo Alaikum wa Rahmatullah, Peace and mercy of Allah be upon you) while turning their face towards the right and to the left. 


Prayer in congregation

Women's prayer hall in Khadija Mosque, Berlin, Germany

The present Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, highlighted how offering the five daily prayers in congregation at a mosque is compulsory for Muslim males during his Friday Sermon on 13 February 2015. He added that if an Ahmadi mosque is too far to reach on a particular prayer, the worshiper should at least strive to offer the prayer in congregation with others, for example family members. 

In cases where a prayer is offered individually, it is offered exactly in the same way as when led by an Imam, except that whatever the Imam recites loudly, is instead recited silently. 


Types of Prayer

Fard as-salah

Fard is an Arabic word which means compulsory or obligatory. There are five obligatory prayers everyday. 

Five Daily Prayers

Name

Prescribed time period

Rakats



Fajr (فجر)

Begins with dawn and ends just before sunrise

2

 

Zuhr(ظهر)

After the sun has crossed the zenith point and has begun to decline

4

 

Asr(عصر)

When the sun has further advanced in decline and reaches a point nearly half way between the beginning of decline and sunset

4

 

Maghrib(مغرب)

Immediately after the sun has set

3

 

Isha(عشاء)

When dusk has finally disappeared, giving way to the darkness of night

4

 


    Jumah

    Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad delivers Friday Sermon from Baitul Futuh Mosque in London. 
    Friday Prayer is offered in congregation. It is offered in place of Zuhr Prayer. Each week on Friday, Muslims are required to take a bath, dress in their best clean clothes, wear perfume and assemble in the mosque for Friday Prayer.

    Wajib salat

    The following prayers are regarded as wajib (necessary) Prayers: Three rakat of salat-al-vitr. Two rakat of Eid-ul-Fitr and two rakat of Eid-al-Adha. Two rakat offered while performing the tawaaf (circling) of the Kaaba.

    Sunnah salat

    Muhammadsa offered extra rakat of prayer in addition to those of fard prayers. These Prayers are called sunnah Prayers.

    Nafl salat

    These are optional prayers. One example of a set of nafl prayers are the eight rakat of Tahajjud. Another example is Taraveeh prayer during Ramadan. One may offer as many nafl prayers as one wishes. However, nafl should not be offered during the forbidden times for prayers. For example, they should not be offered between Asr and Maghrib prayers.


    Combining Prayers

    Under certain conditions, two Prayer services may be offered together. For example, Zuhr may be immediately followed by Asr. Or Maghrib may be immediately followed by Isha. In his Friday Sermon on 13 February 2015, the present Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, condemned the practice of needlessly combining prayers. 

    There are certain circumstances in which it is permissible to combine the prayers:

    a. If a person is sick.

    b. If a person is on a journey.

    c. During rain or a storm.

    d. If it is difficult to go to the mosque because of general discomfort caused by heavy rains.


    - Salat: the Muslim Prayerbook


    Anas reported that when the Messenger of Allahsa had to set out on a journey hurriedly, he delayed the noon prayer to the earlier time for the afternoon prayer, and then he would combine them, and he would delay the sunset prayer to the time when the twilight would disappear and then combine it with the Isha prayer.

    - Muslim


    Praying with non-Ahmadi Muslims


    Muslims of other sects are welcome to pray with Ahmadis in Ahmadiyya mosques. However the imam must always be an Ahmadi:

    Our mosques are open to anyone who wants to worship God...Those who deny the Promised Messiah's claim to be the reformer of the age, the prophet of the age as raised by Allah Himself, you can't say your prayer behind them, because imamat in prayer is just a symbol - the true imamat comes from Allah. Imamat means leadership, so if Allah has revealed a relgiious leadership, those who have broken contact with that leadership, become hostile to that leadership, how can they remain imams to you? So an Ahmadi can never say his prayer behind a person who denies the Promised Messiah and calls him an impostor, because if you do that then you follow him in that and behind an imam your own intention simply does not mean anything. Whatever imam intends, you follow.

    - Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, Question & Answer Session 7 May 1984


    See also